Science of Golf Balls

Everyone knows that a golf ball is the golf equipment that is hit around the course. Every player knows that the golf ball is the tiny, commonly white, ball that has dimples covering its surface. These are just basic facts on golf balls. However, there are a lot more things that a typical player does not know about the golf ball. Well, in this article, you’ll discover other (interesting) bits of information about golf balls.

Golf balls are made with physics in mind. The basic concepts that revolve around this golf equipment are velocity, angle of launch, and the rate of spins. All these concepts combine and make up the trajectory of the ball while in flight, as well as its performance when it hits the ground. These concepts could be summed up with one scientific topic, aerodynamics. In fact, a lot of golf players, especially coaches and trainers, apply the law of aerodynamics to study how varying strikes could affect the trajectory and performance upon impact.

To know more about the behaviour of the ball during the entire drive, two aerodynamic concepts are applied to the swings – the lift and the drag. These are just two of the many forces that the ball experiences when it is flying through the air.

golf ballsThe lift is best explained through an example. Imagine a player going for a backspin. He would produce lift when he hits the ball and distorts the airflow around the ball. This specific lift force generation is called the Magnus effect. This spinning golf ball that’s experiencing a Magnus effect would show an upward lift force. The skyward lift would then push the ball to fly farther and higher, relative to the flight characteristics of a non-spinning one.

Next is the drag. This is, in fact, the direct reason for putting dimples on the surface of the ball. The dimples help by converting a boundary layer of the golf ball from laminar, or something akin to parallel flow, to turbulent, which is described as a chaotic flow. The conversion is needed as a turbulent flow can attach itself longer to the surface of the ball, as compared to the laminar one. The attachment would produce a more fitted low pressure wake. This would result into a drag with less pressure. In general, a drag with less pressure can make the ball fly farther.

Aerodynamics is also applied easier when the surface of the ball is clean, and no residue can be found in the dimples. A clean golf ball is in its best form, resulting to a great flight statistics.

In addition to Aerodynamics, golf balls also employ the concept of compression. Compression, for golf, describes the hardness of the core layer of the ball. A golf ball with a high level of compression would only mean that it has very hard core layers. A golf ball that experiences a high compression rate could fly longer. This is because the hard core of the ball enables it to absorb the transferred energy more efficiently and more easily than a low compression ball. However, high compression balls give a hard feel when hit. That hard feel is essentially the shock that goes through the player’s arm after hitting the ball. The opposite happens for low compression balls, as they have shorter flight distances but provide a soft feel when hit.

While it may seem to some that these bits of info are merely worthless (yet fascinating) facts, it’s undeniable that knowing more about how the balls work leads to a better understanding of the sport and to better scores.

Health Impacts of E Liquids

The use of traditional cigarette has been on the decline in the US. On the other hand, the use of e-cigarettes among teenagers and adults is becoming more and more widespread. These devices are promoted as a safe alternative to smoking traditional cigarettes and are marketed as smoking cessation aids similar to nicotine gum and nicotine patches.

Some health experts as well as regulatory agencies are scrutinizing e-cigarettes. There are lots of questions arising about its safety claims, especially when it comes to exposure among teenagers and young children. This article will discuss the known and possible risks of e-cigarette use and the effects of the accidental ingestion of e liquids by small children.

The Difference Between The E-Cigarettes and The Traditional Cigarettes

eliquidVaping with e-cigarette produces inhalable form of nicotine that the user can breathe in similar to a traditional cigarette. Even in terms of design, there are lots of e-cigarettes made to look just like an ordinary cigarette, pipe, or cigar. The primary difference between the traditional cigarette and e-cigarette is that e-cigarette does not contain tobacco. It has a small, battery-powered device that heats a cartridge that contains e liquids. The liquid mixture is vaporized using a device, and delivered to the user in the form of an inhalable vapor.

The mixture contains nicotine, which is a highly addictive drug that can also be found in traditional tobacco products. Thus, an e-cigarette is designed to provide a dose of nicotine to the user, while reducing or eliminating exposure to several other harmful substances that can be found in regular tobacco products.

Why Teenagers Love E-Cigarettes?

E-cigarette is becoming more popular among teenagers, so it is important for parents that they understand how the use of e-cig can be harmful to children. Based on the data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, the use of e-cigarette doubled among middle school females, middle school males, and high school females and increased by 60% among high school males. The increase was attributed to the increased availability and promotion of e-cigarettes and also the perception among young adults that it is much safer as compared to the regular cigarettes and other tobacco products.

Also, the e liquids used in e-cigs usually contain sweeteners and flavoring additives. This sort of marketing can encourage young adults to try e-cigs for the first time. There is a debate among health experts regarding the use of e-cigs that considered it as a gateway drug and encourage children and young adult to also try the traditional tobacco product and marijuana.

Toxicity Concerns Related with E-Cigarettes

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted a laboratory analysis on samples of e-cigs. The samples used came from different manufacturers of e liquids. Some mixtures contain several chemicals like myosmine, diethyl glycol, nitrosamines, beta-nicotyrine, and anabasine which are known to be toxic to humans. Also, although many e-liquid cartridges are labeled as containing low amount of nicotine, the FDA discovered that the actual amount of nicotine in some eliquid was highly variable and unpredictable than the level of nicotine specified on the labels of the liquid nicotine. At present, there are no quality controls in place to confirm the level of nicotine advertised on the label of a liquid nicotine bottle is the actual amount it contains.

Safety Precautions When Handling E Liquids

Although e cigarettes are safer for both the user and those around him, they could still be dangerous if left out in the open carelessly. Because of its attractive look, children might get attracted to it and might reach for them. Make sure that you place it in a safe place where it is impossible for children to reach it. E liquids can be dangerous and even deadly if ingested by a child, or pet. is powered by Wordpress | WordPress Themes